Red Hat Linux 8.0

The Official Red Hat Linux Reference Guide

Table of Contents
Changes To This Manual
Finding Appropriate Documentation
Documentation For First-Time Linux Users
For the More Experienced
Documentation for Linux Gurus
Document Conventions
Using the Mouse
Copying and Pasting Text With X
More to Come
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I. System Reference
1. File System Structure
Why Share a Common Structure?
Overview of File System Hierarchy Standard (FHS)
Special File Locations
2. The proc File System
A Virtual File System
Top-level Files in the proc Filesystem
Directories in /proc/
Using sysctl
Additional Resources
3. Boot Process, Init, and Shutdown
The Boot Process
A Detailed Look at the Boot Process
Running Programs at Boot Time
Differences in the Boot Process of Other Architectures
SysV Init
Init Runlevels
The /etc/sysconfig/ Directory
Shutting Down
4. Boot Loaders
Boot Loaders and System Architecture
Installing GRUB
GRUB Terminology
GRUB Interfaces
GRUB Commands
GRUB Menu Configuration File
Options in /etc/lilo.conf
Changing Runlevels at Boot Time
Additional Resources
5. Users and Groups
Tools for User and Group Creation
Standard Users
Standard Groups
User Private Groups
Shadow Utilities
6. The X Window System
The Power of X
Desktop Environments and Window Managers
Additional Resources
II. Security Reference
7. Pluggable Authentication Modules (PAM)
Advantages of PAM
PAM Configuration Files
PAM Modules
PAM Module Control Flags
PAM Module Paths
PAM Module Arguments
Sample PAM Configuration Files
PAM and Device Ownership
Additional Resources
8. TCP Wrappers and xinetd
What Are TCP Wrappers?
Host-Based Access Control Lists
Access Control Using xinetd
Additional Resources
9. SSH Protocol
Features of SSH
Event Sequence of an SSH Connection
Layers of SSH Security
OpenSSH Configuration Files
More Than a Secure Shell
Require SSH for Remote Connections
10. Kerberos
Advantages of Kerberos
Kerberos Disadvantages
Kerberos Terminology
How Kerberos Works
Kerberos and PAM
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Server
Configuring a Kerberos 5 Client
Additional Resources
11. Tripwire
How to Use Tripwire
Installing the Tripwire RPM
Customizing Tripwire
Initialize the Tripwire Database
Running an Integrity Check
Examining Tripwire Reports
Updating the Tripwire Database
Updating the Tripwire Policy File
Updating the Tripwire Configuration File
Tripwire File Location Reference
Additional Resources
III. Network Services Reference
12. Network Scripts
Network Configuration Files
Interface Configuration Files
Interface Control Scripts
Network Functions
Additional Resources
13. Firewalls and iptables
Packet Filtering
Differences between iptables and ipchains
Options Used in iptables Commands
Storing iptables Information
Additional Resources
14. Apache HTTP Server
Apache HTTP Server 2.0
Migrating Apache HTTP Server 1.3 Configuration Files
After Installation
Starting and Stopping httpd
Configuration Directives in httpd.conf
Default Modules
Adding Modules to Your Server
Using Virtual Hosts
Additional Resources
15. Email
Email Program Classifications
Additional Resources
16. Berkeley Internet Name Domain (BIND)
Introduction to DNS and BIND
BIND Configuration Files
Using rndc
Advanced Features of BIND
Common Mistakes to Avoid
Additional Resources
17. Network File System (NFS)
NFS Server Configuration Files
NFS Client Configuration Files
Securing NFS
Additional Resources
18. Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Why Use LDAP?
OpenLDAP Daemons and Utilities
LDAP Terminology
OpenLDAP Configuration Files
OpenLDAP Setup Overview
Upgrading To OpenLDAP Version 2.0
Configuring Your System to Authenticate Using OpenLDAP
Additional Resources
IV. Appendixes
A. General Parameters and Modules
Specifying Module Parameters
CD-ROM Module Parameters
SCSI parameters
Ethernet Parameters